Architecture of North Korea
Typical traditional Korean architecture were two main styles: a Palace-temple which has been formed under the strong influence of Chinese canons, and folk — the building of houses for ordinary people, who had many local varieties. Ancient architects who built palaces and temples, borrowed a system of beams and supports the Chinese. For residential buildings of ordinary people were characterized by thatched roofs and under floor heating system, ondol. Rich people built large houses with elegantly curved tiled roofs ended at the end slightly raised eaves. Great value in architecture was given to the natural landscape. So, many Buddhist monasteries scattered throughout the country, usually built in the mountains, perfectly blending into the surrounding landscape. A place for building only then was considered appropriate, when opened from there the corresponding view of the “mountains and water”.
Architectural symbols of modern North Korea are the Mansudae Theatre, people’s Palace of studies, the Palace of congresses Mansudae, the Palace of pioneers and schoolchildren, the Museum of the Korean revolution and the 105-storey hotel «Rougon” in Pyongyang.
Needless to say that architecture, like all other branches of art in Korea and original in its beautiful?
In the past century, special attention was given to geomancy, that is the definition space for the construction of the building. It was believed that from the location of the building depends on the favor of the forces of nature. Was derived the rule that the best option when the facade of the building is pointing South, with the North side rise mountains, and before the construction certainly had to be a water stream. It is from these views Seoul became the capital of the Republic of Korea in 1394.
When from China came Buddhism, started developing temple architecture. She was under the great influence of Chinese art buildings. But Korean architects have contributed their own additions to the temple architecture. Appeared stone pagoda of a certain architectural style – Baekje. He had the three lined up in rows, pagodas. On the North side of the pagoda was a hall, surrounded by corridors. Thought it was temple.
Examples constructed using this technique are structures – the Monastery of Bulguksa temple and Seokguram grotto. They were built during the unified Silla period.
The architecture was often used decorative elements: for example, Tanchon (colorful pattern).
Each color has its own symbolism. So it was believed that blue color – this spring, red – summer, black – autumn, black – winter. Yellow meant the changing of the seasons, and the red-brown – harmony.
The usual Korean house was a one-story building. The roof was thatched, the walls were made of clay. Most often the houses were built on the principle of the letters G and P, so that each house had a patio. Such houses have become widespread in the Joseon dynasty.
Even in the last century Korean residential houses were endowed with Central heating, a chimney that was connected to the kitchen and passed under the floor. Such construction of the chimneys had foreseen that the heat from them will go out into the living room. Because Paul was a source of heat, there is a tradition according to which the Korean can I sleep better, sit and lie down on the floor.
Today the chimneys have replaced special heating pipes. They are heated using gas and electricity.
The Hotel Rügen.
The plan for the construction of a 105-storey skyscraper that emerged during the cold war as a response to a South Korean construction company of Stamford in Singapore. To attract foreign investment for the construction set up a special company, “Ryugyong Hotel Investment and Management Co”. It was assumed that it would collect $ 230 million investment. The North Korean government promised foreign investors a weakening of control, including permission to build casinos, Nightclubs and Japanese Lounges relaxing. The hotel, being half-unfinished, was plotted on maps, guides and stamps of the country.
It was assumed that 3 thousand rooms and 7 restaurants will be open in June 1989 the XIII world festival of youth and students, but construction problems and shortage of materials delayed the opening. The Japanese press has estimated the amount spent on the construction of 750 million dollars (the magazine “Engineering News-Record”, 15 November 1990, p. 41) — 2 % of North Korean GDP. In 1992 due to lack of funding and General economic crisis the construction was stopped.
The main part of the tower was built, however, the window, communications and equipment were not established. In accordance with the report Emporis, the top of the building is made of poor quality and may fall off. This report present the design of a building can not operate. The North Korean government is trying to attract $ 300 million in foreign investment for the development and construction of a new design, and while it removed the unfinished with cards and stamps and built a five-star hotel more familiar design on the banks of the Taedong river.
In 2008, the North Korean government announced his intention to finish the building. Work on summing up under the roof was launched in the first quarter of 2008. As of September 2008 are antennas for mobile communication given in the order of upper floors and installation of Windows and cladding.