Among other parts of the world Asia stands out the most contrast for height relief. Here are the highest on Earth, mountain ranges and greatest plateau, lowland extensive and deepest continental depression. Such a relief – the result of a long history of development of the Eurasian landmass.
The oldest sections of the Asian land mass, as on other continents, is represented by Precambrian platforms. But unlike other continents, which were formed around a nucleus of an ancient platform, in Asia there are several such cores. In the North – that the Siberian, on the East – a Chinese platform. South Asia is also highlighted between the Indostan and the Arabian platform, which are “strangers”. This is part of ancient Gondwana, and later joined the Eurasian lithospheric plate.
Unlike the ancient Asian European sustainable platform more mobile. They experienced vertical tectonic movements on deep faults. As a consequence, plain, formed on these platforms, the exalted. The Central plateau – the highest among similar types of plains. The relatively flat plains of the Arabian Peninsula and the Indian subcontinent have raised edges. For the great China plain characterized by dissected.
In the Paleozoic between the Siberian and Chinese platforms have any folding region. It formed a giant mountain belt, which gradually “soldered” separate platforms into a single unit. Unlike Asia European mountains were formed during all periods of mountain building. The oldest of them are found in Baikal area. Therefore, the period of their formation was given the name Baikal. Mountains have formed in the Caledonian, and Hercynian periods. For a long time, they destroyed. However, their fate was not the same. Most of them after the destruction of the newly regenerated, that is, tectonic forces create mountains. Thus arose the mountain system of the Tien Shan, Altai, Sayan, etc. of the Paleozoic folded structures of the Western Siberia and Western Kazakhstan, and the area South of the Aral sea, on the contrary, were subjected to excessive lowering of the fold and formed the Foundation of young Paleozoic platform – West Siberian and Turan. They are really young: even in the eyes of primitive man in this place overlooking the sea. Its sediment has formed large lowland – the West Siberian and Turan.
Some of the Paleozoic structures, for example in the East of Kazakhstan, not experienced in further sladkogolosaya and lifting. Over time they collapsed and turned into hilly territory. Such is the Kazakh low hills.
In the Mesozoic period of mountain building in the East Asia from Chukotka to the Malay Peninsula formed the fold belt of mountains North-South strike. An example of such mountains are the mountain ranges of the Verkhoyansk and Chersky, Sikhote-Aliny.
After the Mesozoic to the formation of the relief of the continent “started” tectonic movements of the Cenozoic. (What mountain structures of Europe belong to this period of mountain building?) Cenozoic folding has manifested itself in South and East Asia. There was a tremendous fold belt, which connected the mining facilities in Europe and Asia (from the Pyrenees to the ridges on the Islands of Sumatra and Java). Within Asia the highest of these mountains: the Caucasus, the Pamirs, the Hindu Kush and the Himalayas with the highest peak in the world — mount Everest.
Ridges fold belt that sometimes diverge in a fan, as if embracing more aligned portions of the surface – the highlands of the Peninsula of Asia Minor, Armenian and Iranian. A peculiar structure of the Tibet plateau, the terrain is a blend of flat plains with ridges. Its Foundation is very ancient, but after lifting along with the Himalaya, it reached a record for plateau height (5000–7000 m).
In Cenozoic time in southern Asia formed not only the highest mountain facilities. On the border of platforms and fold belt in the deflection of the earth’s crust was formed Mesopotamian and Indo-Gangetic plain. The depth of the troughs shows that the capacity of river sediments up to 8–9 km.
Second giant belt of Cenozoic folding has formed in the East Pacific along the coast of Asia by the collision of the Pacific and Eurasian lithospheric plates. It stretches from Kamchatka to the Malay archipelago. Mountain building can be traced here, not only on land but also on the Islands extending a huge arc. It coincides with the Pacific “fire” of the ring, so there are frequent volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. The tops of the ridges rise above the sea,” is active (the highest – Klyuchevskaya Sopka, 4750 m) and extinct volcanoes.
Asia – the biggest part of the world. It is washed by the four oceans of the Earth.
Tectonic structure of Asia is very complex. There is a differentiation between Precambrian and Palaeozoic platforms, orogenic belts of different ages: Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic.
The relief of Asia is very diverse: here extend a huge area of plains, high mountains and highlands of the world.