The History of Korean martial arts
P o comparison with China or Japan in Korea to have survived much less reliable historical information. From classical treatises have survived, only one was created quite late, in 1789, “the MUI the you. konji” (“Drawing the Outlook of martial arts”). Multifaceted negatively influenced by tradition and political culture and ideology of the country. And the Japanese occupation of 1910-1945 years, during which the colonialists pursued a policy of forced assimilation and suppressed all manifestations of the true Korean culture, actually almost stopped a number of traditional Korean martial arts.
Greatly complicates the identification of the true picture and strenuously maintained on both sides of the 38th parallel, the company propaganda, in which many official historians of martial arts hard to prove that martial arts in Korea are not inferior in ancient times, Chinese unique tradition. However, not all of the facts on which they rely, can be considered as a definite confirmation of such a concept.
“Stand typical of Korean martial arts” if you wish, of course, can be found in threatening postures and gestures of the figures the guardian spirit, guarding the gate of Buddhist temples, such representations are found not only in Korea but also in other countries of the region. On ancient frescoes, there are scenes of fights, but it does not mean that when one person hits another on the nose, then uses some fighting techniques. And one of the very early frescoes, which depicts a man with splayed arms, a posture which resembles a “rack rider”, and is found in almost all books on the history of martial arts, and in books on art or Ethnography, in which it is interpreted as. the sight of dancing or flying shaman.
The tradition of martial arts in Korea begins with the period of the three States (Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla). Each of them had their own combat systems. For example, in Goguryeo, which was located in the Northern part of the Peninsula and large parts of Manchuria, had a system of “sunbae”. Grown and got stronger in the struggle with China, Goguryeo had a strong, well trained army.
In Baekje martial arts were known under the name “subak” (written with the same kanji as the Chinese martial art “sobo” ).
The most interesting state of Silla, famous for his military-religious institution of Churanov (“blooming youth”). These boys taken at the age of 14-15 years old from noble families, in time of peace was studying the whole complex of martial arts, sang songs endowed with “magical powers”, and learned how to run the country, and in war fought in the front ranks and were the best trained combat troops, the exploits of which there is a lot of information in the Korean Chronicles. Training of Churanov included n only exercises in meditation, poetry, music, and dance but also the art of riding, fencing and archery, as well as subak. The objective of this comprehensive training was the perfect upbringing harmonically developed personality.
In the fight between the three States the role of unifier of the country played Sylla, who used the assistance of Tang China. In 668, the year Korea became a unified state, which is closely associated with neighboring China. Kwonbeop (Korean martial arts) enriched Chinese tradition, and the names of a number of topics – for example “tansuo” (“Tang hand”) – this link is confirmed. With InCheck, one of the most serious researchers of Korean martial arts, indicates that at about this time martial arts of Korea can be divided already into three branches – not so much by descent (purely Korean or Korean-Chinese), but by their specific characteristics:
Muslim sado (“private” or “popular” martial arts) styles, which are dominated by sports and competitive budget, brings them to European wrestling.
Muslim pulse (“Buddhist martial art”) as practiced in Buddhist monasteries and employees primarily for moral self-improvement, spiritual and physical health and disclosure abilities.
Kungun Muslim (“Palace of martial arts”), used as a system of training individual troops or elite units, with emphasis on practical application, work with weapons, etc.
After 976, when it replaced the unified Silla period came the state of the Cortex, many areas of the martial arts took shape in certain schools and styles. Some of them, such as canek or subacchi, now almost unknown. However, such as thicken, charak, subak, or Yu Sul orincon, emerged as a clear direction at this time.
The most original and the most Korean of these is thicken. At least the name of it, unlike most of the names of Korean martial arts, are recorded in Chinese characters is written only in Korean font. Thicken the technique is no different variety of stands, but is characterized by a developed technique of the legs with a large Arsenal of a variety of pegs and cuttings. Above the chest do not beat feet, and the circular kicks are more common penetrating. In duels the main thing was to knock down the enemy, and not to inflict some serious bodily injury.